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學習英語作為第二語言(四)

First of Four Article on "Learning English as a Second Language" 

 

Article 4: Phonics and Decoding

In articles 1, 2 and 3, I explained how children cannot just pick up a book and read; they have to be prepared. If parents, or teachers, skip the preparation and expect a child to read – they will simply memorise the words; this is especially easy for Chinese children to do because they practise memorising Chinese characters from a very early age. Some people only ever read from memory, but it has its limitations, which is why learning to be phonemically aware has become popular in Asia.

Phonemic awareness is having the knowledge to use ‘44 sounds’ (both single and combinations of alphabet letters) to read and pronounce words.

Decoding is separating a word into phonic sounds in order to read it, and pronounce it, correctly.

Does it apply to every word in the dictionary? No it doesn’t, as shown in the following example: You cannot decode a word like ‘was’ – it would become w + as with an incorrect pronunciation.

Similarly, if you hear ‘was’ and try to spell it using phonic sounds, the word would be ‘woz’; obviously incorrect.  

Knowing the sounds of the letters allows children to read, pronounce and spell most words; having this skill is useful because:

a) Not everyone has a good memory or finds reading easy

b) There are thousands of words and most can be decoded

c) Knowing the letter sounds enables children to pronounce the words correctly

d) Recognising vowels, consonants, digraphs, diphthongs and blends, teaches and improves reading skills, spelling and dictation scores

This article expresses the personal opinion of Elaine Shannon, Principal of Ready To Learn

 

學習英語作為第二語言(四)(共四篇)

拼音與解碼

在第一至三篇文章中我們知道學童不是拿起書本就能夠閱讀;他們必須下功夫。如果父母或老師不為孩子準備而期待他們閱讀,他們就只能死記;這對孩子來說不太難因為孩子從少認中文字就要靠記憶。有些更只靠記憶閱讀,但此方法有限制,所以亞洲都流行著學習拼音。

拼音認知 就是學會應用“44個原音”(包括英文字母單字及組合字)來閱讀及拼音。

解碼 就是把一個詞拆開至原音單位使之能夠正確閱讀出來,或拼音。

這能否應用在每個字典裡的文字?不能,以下為例子:你不能對“was”解碼 –否則便成為w+as 便是錯的拼音。相似地,如果你聽到“was”並嘗試以原因拼寫,你會得出“woz”;明顯是錯的。認識字母的發音讓孩子能閱讀,拼音及串寫大部份的詞;此技巧對孩子幫助很大因為:

a)   不是每個人都有很好的記憶力或覺得閱讀容易

b)   他們需要認識上千的字,但大部份都可以被解碼

c)    認識字母的發音令學童能準確拼音

d)   認識元音、子音、雙元音和混音,能教導及提高閱讀能力,串寫和聽寫成績

作者; Elaine Shannon

Ready to Learn 校長

此專欄代表Elaine Shannon 的個人意見

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